Another Kind of Mobility

A century ago in San Diego County, mobility didn’t just mean people moving from one place to another. It often meant whole buildings moving from one place to another. Check out this ad from a 1914 San Diego City Directory:

An item in the San Diego Union of January 11, 1914 noted that “the latest evidence of things moving and times changing is had in the old Pauly residence at Eleventh and Broadway. The Owl House Moving Company is now preparing the underplaning for moving this old home from its present site to Eighteenth and G streets. The present site is to be cleared for the erection of a handsome new structure, which is to have storerooms below and offices above.”

The house was being moved “to meet the demands of more accomodations in the business district,” according to the article. “When the house now there was erected [in 1889], “San Diego was barely out of the village class….”

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A Job For The Times

Below is part of a listing for Lakeside in a 1901 San Diego County directory:

I chose it because of the occupations listed for each resident. Most of them are jobs you’d readily expect for the time and place, like rancher, well digger, beekeeper and schoolteacher. But please note the occupation at the very bottom: poundmaster.

A pound back then was an enclosure, often by stone fencing, to house stray livestock that had been found wandering about the local area. The poundmaster or poundkeeper was charged with oversight of such animals, trying to find their owners. If no one came to claim the animals, the poundmaster was empowered to sell them at auction.

This had to be a big responsibility in San Diego County in 1901. The economy was predominantly agricultural, and the livestock population–cattle, sheep, horses, pigs, chickens–far outnumberd the humans.

Figures from the census and county surveys in 1887 showed 270,000 head of livestock compared to 30,000 people. Things hadn’t changed that much by 1901. An item in the San Diego Union on March 28 of that year began, “The farmers in the vicinity of El Cajon valley are feeling quite happy nowadays. The crops, trees and vines are all doing well, and there is plenty of pasturage for their livestock.”

This would be the predominant way of life in the county for at least another 40 years.

“A Sight Worth Seeing”

I came across this ad in a 1914 San Diego city directory and was fascinated. My mental image of log rafts had been confined to Huck and Jim lashing a few logs together. But four million feet of logs comprising a raft over 600 feet long?

I did a little digging and discovered that this was a regular part of traffic in San Diego harbor every summer from the early 1900s to the early 1940s. At the facilities of the Benson Lumber Company in Oregon, thousands of harvested tree logs were fastened together with tons of metal chains into literal floating islands an acre or more in length. Then they were towed by tugboats on down the coast to Benson’s docks in San Diego.

“Third Big Log Raft Arrives in Harbor” was the headline of an article on page 5 of the August 1, 1905 San Diego Union, reporting that the third such raft of the season “crawled into the harbor yesterday in tow of the powerful sea-going steel tug Dauntless, and came to anchor off the foot of Sixteenth street at 2 p. m.”

The raft, which took 17 days to complete the trip, was described as “practically the same dimensions as its predecessor” at 720 feet long, 50 feet wide, drawing “between 23 and 24 feet of water” and “containing approximately 4,500,000 feet of logs,” according to the article.

For further background, including some old postcard photos of these behemoths, here’s a link to a 2012 article on the website Offbeat Oregon :

http://www.offbeatoregon.com/1202c-benson-log-rafts-built-city-of-san-diego.html

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The Original Horsepower

I recently came across this ad in the 1905 edition of Dana Burks’ San Diego City/County Directory:

Fred Fanning was one of a number of livery stable operators in San Diego County in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.  By the time of this ad, automobiles were coming into American life, but horse-based transportation was still an essential element. The ad also offers some historical perspective on transportation terminology, then and now. Note, for example, how Mr. Fanning’s selling points include “Fine Rigs, Good Teams, Careful Drivers.” I’ve been fascinated to see how the term “driver” was used, in pre-automotive days, to describe someone who drove a team of horses.  While an individual might “ride” a single horse, he or she “drove” a team of horses.

That use of the term can be found in printed works from well back in the days of original horsepower. In an 1873 book offering travel tips on California for visitors and settlers, author Charles Nordhoff, commenting on the quality of roads in one particular area, refers to them as “roads over which you may drive at the rate of ten or twelve miles per hour and do no harm to your horses nor tire yourself.”

That tells you something about travel time in the days of original horsepower too!

Back to Mr. Fanning’s ad, you can also see the evolution of vehicle terminology in the phrase: “Hacks, Tally-Hos and Three-Seaters a Specialty.” I would venture to guess that if Fanning had an auto showroom today he would be offering vans, high performance sports cars and coupes.

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San Diego: “that paradise of invalids….”

“Santa Barbara and San Diego have become, within two years, favorite winter resorts for invalids from the colder eastern states. The climate of both places is remarkably equal and warm all winter…..”

That passage is from a book published in 1873 by Charles Nordhoff, a prominent journalist of the day. The book was entitled California: For Health, Pleasure and Residence, and the healthfulness of California’s climate was an important feature of Nordhoff’s pitch. A whole chapter of the book was called, “Southern California for Invalids,” and began with an anecdote about a personal friend from back east who had been near death from tuberculosis when he moved to southern California. On seeing his friend three months later, Nordhoff discovered “a changed man” who had driven sixty miles in a wagon to meet Nordhoff in Los Angeles and was able to “walk with me several miles in the evening we met….”

Nordhoff was picking up on a trend. In November 1874 the San Diego Union published a letter picked up from a Detroit paper that saluted San Diego County for its agriculture and mineral wealth, but also stated that “As a national sanitarium San Diego is unsurpassed. Hundreds of invalids coming here have been restored to health or greatly benefitted.”

A year later the Union quoted a Pennsylvania newspaper proclaiming San Diego “that paradise of invalids,” and also carried an excerpt from a San Bernardino paper noting that “those who have traveled to Europe and wintered in such famous resorts as Nice, Naples, etc., after having spent the winter here, declare our climate much more balmy and invigorating  than in the former places, and as a consequence instead of seeking Italy, Southern California is chosen for their winter home. We know of one family who have spent their winter months in San Diego for the past three years, and now we notice their arrival at the Horton House for the fourth season.”

Seeking better health, physically and mentally, as well as land and wealth, were key ingredients in attracting visitors and settlers to California in the mid to late nineteenth century. I’m researching this phenomenon for a talk I’ll be giving for San Diego Oasis in September, and it’s sure to be a continuing topic for future talks and blog posts to come.

In addition to the aforementioned Nordhoff book, sources for this post included historic San Diego County newspapers and The Journal of San Diego History.

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One Name Changed, One Endured

An item in The San Diego Union of March 16, 1892 entitled, “An Encouraging Report,” began, “A. Verlaque came in from his Santa Maria Valley ranch yesterday and says that farmers will make a good crop if not another drop of rain falls. That the grain is up nicely in the Santa Maria valley, is thick on the ground and presents a strong and healthy appearance, and the farmers generally are much encouraged over the prospect.”

Amos Verlaque was the son of a French immigrant father and an American mother. He’d come to San Diego County with his parents, Theophile and Elizabeth, and five siblings, in 1870. In the early 1880s Amos bought some land near a spring on the main wagon road to Julian. In 1883 he and other family members, while raising grain and sheep, also built a general store and post office which became the first commercial venture in a new town initially called Nuevo.

A few years later, in July of 1895, the Verlaques and their  town were highlighted for a new reason, in an item headlined: “Nuevo is Now Ramona,” The San Diego Union stated, “Word has been received that the post office department has acted favorably upon the petition of the citizens of this valley to change the name of the post office from Nuevo to Ramona….and the change will go into effect as soon as the new bond of J. A. Verlaque as postmaster has been approved by the department, and the blanks containing the new name arrive.”

J. A. Verlaque was Amos’ brother, Jefferson, generally known as Jeff.

The Verlaque name and the family’s role in Ramona’s history live on in the family home, restored in the 1980s by the Ramona Pioneer Historical Society and now part of the society’s Guy B. Woodward Museum.

Sources for this post included historic San Diego County newspapers and the books, Ramona and Round About by Charles R. Le Menager and Historic Buildings of the Ramona Area by Russell Bowen and Leona B. Ransom.

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Isidor Louis’ Cool Legacy

This started out as a story about ice cream. After learning that July is National Ice Cream Month, I thought I’d look for an ice cream-related story from San Diego history. I thought I had one when I found some ads from historical newspapers like the one below from the April 29, 1885 San Diego Union, courtesy of the GenealogyBank website:

You can find a lot of ads about the Maison Doree in San Diego papers of the period, including references to its ice cream being made “from pure cream.” Maison Doree was also a general restaurant as well as a store and a place that could be rented out for group events.

I sought more background on Isidor Louis and found him in the 1880 United States Census living in San Diego but with the occupation of shoemaker. I wasn’t sure if this was the same guy until I discovered that he was indeed the same person, a Jewish immigrant from Poland who’d come to San Diego in 1870, by way of San Francisco and Los Angeles and a return trip to Poland to marry in the interim. He had indeed been a maker of boots and shoes. He continued to do that but also had an eye for other opportunities. Seeing the need for ice in the warm summer months, he set himself up as an ice merchant, getting ice cut from Lake Tahoe in the winter and shipping it to an insulated warehouse in San Diego where he sold it to consumers seeking to cool their beer and liquor and preserve their food.

It was a natural step to open an “ice cream saloon” in 1880. In 2017, Joellyn Zollman, curator of the exhibit, “Celebrate San Diego: The History and Heritage of San Diego’s Jewish Community” at the San Diego History Center, told the San Diego Union-Tribune that Louis was “the first to make ice cream in San Diego. He was the most popular man in town!”

In the late nineteenth century Louis also built an opera house, now demolished, and a bank building, the Louis Bank of Commerce which still stands today.

Isidor Louis died in Los Angeles in 1896, but he is commemorated today as a pioneering San Diego entrepreneur and philanthropist, with a very cool legacy, literally and figuratively.

Sources for this post included The Journal of San Diego History, historic San Diego newspapers, the U. S. National Archives, and the Jewish Museum of the American West.

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